北京师范大学全球发展战略合作伙伴项目 IIPL Virtual Lecture

北京师范大学全球发展战略合作伙伴项目 Beijing Normal University Global Development Strategic Partnership Project

互联网政策与法律研究中心 外国专家网上讲座

Institute for Internet Policy & Law Virtual Lecture Series by Foreign Experts

Date: 19 November 2020, 17:00-20:30 Beijing

Lecture via Zoom connection

Moderator: Prof. Hong Xue, Director of Institute for Internet Policy & Law, Beijing Normal University

Lecturer: Professor Andrea Stazi is the Professor in Comparative Law and New Technologies Law, the Full Professor in Comparative Law of the National Scientific Habilitation and the Director of the Innovation Law Laboratory (InnoLawLab) of Europe University in Rome.

Prof. Stazi lectured on the regulatory regime on genetically modified organisms (GMO) in Europe and made the comparative study with US, China and other jurisdiction. The BNU students who are particularly interested in the GMO labeling system made the extensive study on this topic. The students of LLM in Chinese Law raised on question but were gratitude to the opportunity to access the lecture.

2020年11月19日17:00-20:30,互联网政策与法律研究中心主办 “北京师范大学全球发展战略合作伙伴项目”外国专家网络讲座,罗马欧洲大学安德烈.斯特齐教授为法学院中国法硕士项目学生、法学硕士生、法律硕士生、法学博士生等做了以“比较法中的转基因的法律监管”为主题的演讲。薛虹教授主持讲座,并进行了评议。

斯特齐教授首先介绍了基因工程和转基因技术的定义,并提出了转基因农作物和食物的出现解决了全世界范围内的饥饿和营养不良问题。基因工程是以分子遗传学为理论基础,以分子生物学和微生物学的现代方法为手段,将不同来源的基因按预先设计的蓝图,在体外构建杂种DNA分子,然后导入活细胞,以改变生物原有的遗传特性、获得新品种、生产新产品的遗传技术。基因工程技术为基因的结构和功能的研究提供了有力的手段。转基因技术是指利用DNA重组、转化等技术将特定的外源目的基因转移到受体生物中,并使之产生可预期的、定向的遗传改变。转基因技术应用在人类社会各个领域 中,较为常见的包括了利用转基因技术生产的农作物,以及利用转基因技术生产疫苗等。含有转基因作物成分的食品被称之为转基因食品,其与非转基因食品具有同样的安全性。世界卫生组织以及联合国粮农组织认为:凡是通过安全评价上市的转基因食品,与传统食品一样安全,可以放心食用。随着转基因技术的出现,也引发了众多的法律问题,尤其是从可持续发展和比较法的角度,这些问题在发展中国家尤其突出。在转基因领域的主要存在的问题是如何对转基因农作物的种子等的使用进行有效的限制。

斯特齐教授进一步介绍了目前在转基因领域出现的机遇、风险和监管选择。在目前全球饥饿问题仍然严峻的今天,如何保证食品安全是非常重要的,对转基因的有效管理即利用其解决全球饥饿问题,有保障食品的安全性。其中主要的问题在于:1)农作物或转基因产品获取和商业开发自由的形式和限制;2)保护食品健康和确保消费者透明度的有效规则。随着,转基因食品供应在世界范围成为主流,如何对其进行有效的监管控制十分重要。转基因食品标识是管理转基因食品的重要一环。转基因标识是根据转基因生物安全管理相关法律法规对含有转基因成分的食品、饲料和其它相关产品进行的标示 。转基因标识符合法律赋予消费者知情权和选择权的要求,为消费者提供相关信息,并使消费者在知情的情况下做出自己的选择。斯特齐教授对于如何有效地管控转基因食品安全和标识也进行了分享。

斯特齐教授专门介绍了美国、欧洲和中国在转基因方面的法规。美国对生物安全和转基因食品管理方面的法律、法规很健全,而且各部门相对独立、分工明确、权责明晰、相互协调统一、且运作效率高。由于美国对转基因食品的管理采取相对宽松的政策,美国的转基因作物和转基因食品发展非常快,在世界上处于垄断地位。但在转基因食品管理、法律方面仍存在严重的不足,即对转基因食品不进行标识。欧盟通过“欧盟议会委员会新食品和食品成分管理条例第258/97号令”, 并于当日生效,由此开始了欧盟对转基因产品的严格管制。欧盟是对转基因作物及其产品管理最为严格的地区之一,目前对于转基因作物的管理决策正在欧洲水平上制定,27个成员国的转基因食品、饲料以及进口申请统一由欧盟食品安全局(ESFA)负责审批。ESFA拥有最为复杂的转基因产品审批程序,与美国专注控制转基因产品不同,这些程序注重控制转基因产品的生产研制过程和环境释放过程。欧盟认为,只有从源头控制,才能把转基因产品的危害控制在最小的范围内。

薛虹教授进行了评议,斯特齐教授关于转基因监管的研究着重于植物与粮食方面,但是随着转基因肉类的发展,关于转基因动物及相关的食品安全也将成为突出的法律问题。斯特齐教授对此甚为赞同,并表示将进一步进行研究。来自中国、意大利、韩国的数十位研究生参加了网络讲座,并与斯特齐教授进行了亲切的互动。

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Prof. Xue presented at UN Webinar on Mongolia’s Accession to the UNECC

On 15 May 2020, the Parliament of Mongolia passed legislation to accede to the UN Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts (UNECC). It comes at an opportune time, strengthening the country’s legal foundation to further invigorate its business and trade activities. It also reinforces the momentum gained from Mongolia’s ratification of the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement  in December 2019, with the country’s accession effective by January 2021.

Building on the momentum of recent developments, UNESCAP East and North-East Asia Office and UNCITRAL RCAP jointly organized the Webinar on November 17, 2020 to actively engage relevant stakeholders in Mongolia to deepen their understanding on UNECC.

  • Date: Wednesday, November 17th, 2020
  • Time
    • 13:00-15:30 (Bangkok)
    • 14:00-16:30 (Ulaanbaatar/Beijing)
    • 15:00-17:30 (Incheon)

Join with a video conferencing device unitevc@m.webex.com

At the Webinar, experts from China, Australia, Korea and UN agencies presented to to the business and legal sectors in Mongolia with the scope, objectives, and main provisions of the UNECC, highlighting the benefits associated with the adoption and use of the UNECC; and discussed the impact of the UNECC on the Mongolian law of electronic transactions, including on the use of electronic signatures. The officer from UNESCAP also Representative talked about the Framework Agreement on Facilitation of CB Paperless Trade that is going to enter into force after the fifth MS’s ratification from China.

Prof. Xue, as the UN invited expert, elaborated on how the UNECC can interact with other treaties, particularly the other UN treaties such as New York Convention and CISG (both of which Mongolia is a party to). Prof. Xue also explain the Convention’s potential of being applied in the bilateral or plurilateral FTAs such as CPTPP and RCEP as well as in the trade facilitation as defined in the Framework Agreement. Prof. Xue responded with the questions from the audience and interacted with the local host. There were more than 40 people at the Webinar.

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Webinar on Domain Name Dispute Resolution

香港国际仲裁中心HKIAC于2020年11月9日15:30举办关于域名争议解决的线上研讨会。本次研讨会将围绕域名第三要素进行探讨。北京师范大学法学院薛虹教授、法学博士、博士生导师分享新增通用顶级域名争议案件中的恶意情形及认定标准,讨论统一域名快速中止程序、授权后争议解决支持与UDRP及中国域名解决政策对于审理被投诉人恶意的异同,讨论UDRP政策实施中被投诉人恶意认定等问题。国际商标协会(INTA)互联网政策高级主管Lori Schulman 女士介绍了ICANN RPM、whois改革等进展。

本次活动结合实际案例,从不同法律文化背景出发,和大家分享相关政策下”恶意”的内涵、实质、类型,证明恶意的方法和角度,以及可能构成或不构成恶意的情形。

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Prof. Xue Lectured for Master of AI @ European University of Rome

On 24 October 2020, 09:00 to 11:00 CET, Prof. Xue was invited to give a guest virtual lecture for the Master Students of Artificial Intelligence at the European University of Rome through Microsoft Teams. More than 60 Master-degree students participated in the Lecture and raised many interesting questions.

Prof. Xue began the lecture with the brief introduction to a variety of national or regional AI strategies coming into being around 2017 and 2018. Although East Asia countries are the most active group for developing the strategic plans, the other leading economies like Singapore, US and EU are not left behind. European Commission has published its people-centered principles for AI application and taken the negative social effects (such as unemployment) into account.

Chinese National Plan, issued by the State Council in 2017 and supported by a few implementation documents, highlighted the 3-step of development and a list of strategic products and areas. According to Prof. Xue’s research, the strategy emphasizes the public investments, market competition and balanced development between the advanced and traditional businesses. Among other things, the Strategy outlines the need of establishing the legal and ethical framework for AI, particularly on the liability and security issues.

Prof. Xue gave an in-depth analysis on the critical legal issues in the international trade law, tort law and IP laws. When the international trading process has been increasingly completed through AI, the legal risk of losing control is real. AI also has the great potential in the application in paperless trade, trade security measures (such as eID management and trust services involving e-seals, timestamp, etc.) and security assessment for data outflow.

Tort law are being challenges with respect to all the critical elements, including malfeasance, fault and liability, once AI comes into play. The traditional liability regime that is based on the human’s free will and choices is not working well in the context of AI above Level 3 (which is more than assistance to human but tending to take control). Prof. Xue suggests that the compulsory insurance may be an alternative to the liability especially in the case of driver-less automobiles, drones and domestic service robots.

With respect to intellectual creations, the criteria in Patent Law and Copyright Law can still be applicable. The problem lies in ownership. Would it become belittling both human and AI to treat the creations as “co-authored” or works for hire? When humans are benefiting from the AI creations, they might not be ready to be liable for the potential infringement risks caused by AI.

Prof. Xue’s lecture was warmed welcomed by the students and opened a new interdisciplinary dialogue across Euro-Asia continent.

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Prof. Xue participated in the UNESCAP Expert Meetings

UNESCAP 8th Meeting of the Legal and Technical Working Groups on Cross-border Paperless Trade Facilitation was held on 14 OCT 2020 TO 16 OCT 2020 virtually. Prof. Xue took part in the meetings and presented the views on the legal issues in the implementation of the Framework Agreement on Facilitation of Cross-Border Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific.

The Framework Agreement on Facilitation of Cross-border Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific, a UN treaty deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations in New York, was adopted by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific in May 2016.

The Framework Agreement aims at accelerating the implementation of digital trade facilitation measures for trade and development. Designed as an inclusive instrument accessible to countries at all levels of development to develop their capacity to engage in cross-border paperless trade, the final treaty text Trade cost reductions expected from full implementation of cross-border paperless trade are estimated at 10-30% of existing transactions costs, depending on the current state of paperless trade development in the participating countries. Significant benefits in terms of trade compliance are also expected.

Five ESCAP member states (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China and Islamic Republic of Iran) formally signed the Framework Agreement in 2017. Azerbaijan acceded to the Framework Agreement in March 2018 and the Philippines acceded in December 2019. Islamic Republic of Iran ratified the Framework Agreement in May 2020 and Bangladesh ratified in October 2020. China is expected to ratify the Framework Agreement very soon and will become the fifth member state that effectuates the Agreement.

Prof. Xue primarily addressed the legal issues of cross-border data transfer and related security enforcement in the process of cross-border paperless trade. China has recently enacted the Export Control Law and prevents the goods, services and technologies (including source codes and algorithms) that endanger national security interests from being exported. The legal mechanism is developed from the technology import & export regulation, which largely divides the technologies into 3 types for the purpose of imports and exports. However, the Cybersecurity Law brings the data outflow into the play (Art. 37). The different legal mechanisms need harmonization and integration to avoid complicating the legal enforcement.

There are many questions left unanswered. Is the technology free for exports subject to the security assessment for data outflow? Are the traders of cross-border paperless trade CII operators? In addition to transaction and logistic documents, are the payment and property certificates (e.g. BLs) the financial data that is within the meaning of “important data “? Are the COs, customs declaration and many other authority sanctions the public service data? Does the data in the IoT, Blockchain and cloud computing outflow and should be subject to security assessment? Should the principle of non-discrimination be applied because the paper-based documents are subject to the same requirements? So many legal uncertainties may become the barriers for the implementation of the Framework Agreement. The concerns were strongly agreed by the other experts at the meetings.

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