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北京师范大学全球发展战略合作伙伴项目外国专家网上讲座第二讲

Beijing Normal University Global Development Strategic Partnership Project

外国专家网上讲座第二讲

Foreign Experts Virtual Lecture Series (Lecture 2)

互联网政策与法律研究中心主办

Moderator

Prof. dr. Hong Xue, Director of Institute for Internet Policy & Law, Beijing Normal University

Date, Time and Connection Details

30 April 2021, 18:00 -20:00

Lecture via Zoom connection

2021年4月30日晚, 联合国国际贸易法委员会秘书处的法律干事Dr. Luca Castellani 为北师大中国、意大利、伊朗等国的中外研究生以及国际经济贸易仲裁员等做了专题网络学术报告。从中国的角度,介绍了贸易法委员会在数字经济法方面的相关工作。Dr. Luca Castellani首先介绍了数字经济的特性和重要性,数字经济是一个很广泛的概念,其成功离不开连贯一致的政策、强大有力的技术支持以及适当可行的法律环境。数字经济交叉贯穿于各个领域,与之联系密切的有数据隐私和保护、网络犯罪、知识产权等,因而涉及到众多法律的适用。Dr. Luca Castellani列举了一些与数字经济有关的法律,并专门介绍了《数字经济法与自由贸易协定》,重点解读了协定中有关电子商务和无纸贸易便利化的章节。《联合国电子通信公约》、《贸易便利化协定》等专门条约影响着国内法的制定,对没有直接参与的国家也具有重要意义。《全面与进步跨太平洋伙伴关系协定》第14章和《区域全面经济伙伴关系协定》第12章旨在促进电子商务和无纸贸易的便利化,全面制定了电子商务的有关规定,主要表现在:寻求法律上的相互承认和相互操作性;支持不歧视和技术中立原则,包括电子签名;允许对某些特定交易类型使用特定的技术;明确表明采用贸易法委员会法规。贸易法委员会早在19世纪80年代就开始研究电子数据交换和跨境电子支付,是联合国电子商务与数字经济工作的核心法律机构,为数字经济的发展作出了较大贡献。1996年通过了旨在使现代通信和信息储存手段能够商业化使用的《贸易法委员会电子商务示范法》。2005年通过了《联合国国际合同使用电子通信公约》,建立并更新了电子商务法的规定,提高了跨境使用电子通信的法律确定性。2017年又通过了《贸易法委员会电子可转让纪录示范法》,完善了贸易法委员会的一系列法规,是数字经济和无纸贸易的重要推动力量。Dr. Luca Castellani专门从中国的角度分析了《贸易法委员会电子可转让示范法》和《联合国国际合同使用电子通信公约》的适用性,中国签署了《亚太跨境无纸贸易便利化框架协定》,为数字丝绸之路的法律建设提供了重要支撑。贸易法委员会第四工作组目前在进行电子身份管理和可信服务方面的磋商工作,示范法草案的商议也进入到了高级阶段,服务提供商的权利义务、服务和系统的可靠性、合同协议的效力等问题亟待解决。由于全球法律框架仍然处于缺失状态,跨境方面的工作尤为重要。Dr. Luca Castellani的讲座得到了中外与会者高度评价与赞誉,激发同学们的学习热情与信心,共同希望系列学术讲座能越办越好。

Expert Guest Lecture

Dr. Luca Castellani, legal officer in the Secretariat of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) lectured on the Relevance of the Work of UNCITRAL for the Law of Digital Economy with a Focus on China for the BNU Law School students, particularly for the LLM in Chinese Law and other postgraduate students, and other legal professionals such as the CIETAC arbitrators.

Expert Lecturer

Dr. Castellani, after graduating in law in the University of Torino, received a doctoral degree in comparative law from the University of Trieste and a master in international law from New York University. Dr. Castellani joined the Office of Legal Affairs of the secretariat of the United Nations in 2001 and the UNCITRAL secretariat in 2004, working in the areas of international sales and of electronic commerce. As secretary of UNCITRAL Working Group IV (Electronic Commerce), Dr. Castellani oversaw the preparation of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Transferable Records and the negotiation of the Provisions on IdM and Trust Services. Dr. Castellani is also active in the field of paperless trade facilitation and has contributed to drafting the Framework Agreement on Facilitation of Cross-border Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific. From March 2012 to November 2013 Dr. Castellani was assigned as first Head of the UNCITRAL Regional Centre for Asia and the Pacific, located in Incheon, Republic of Korea. Dr. Castellani has published several articles and other materials on international trade law and comparative law, namely sale of goods, e-commerce and trade law reform in developing countries.

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Prof. Xue Presented at Moscow Conference on Digitalization of International Trade

International and Comparative Law Research Center (ICLRC), along with the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), and the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation , organized the online discussion session “Digitalization of International Trade” on March 30, 2021, from 1:00 to 6:30 p.m (UTC+3).

ICLRC is a Moscow-based non-profit non-governmental organization conducting research on various issues of public and private international law, as well as holding events on pertinent issues within the sphere.

As stated in the United Nations World Economic Situation and Prospects mid-2020 report, “nearly 90 per cent of the world economy has been under some form of lockdown, disrupting supply chains, depressing consumer demand and putting millions out of work”. The digitalization of international trade is one of the key factors which could ensure global trade growth in time of a crisis like COVID-19 pandemic and reduce contractor costs in general.

Given the restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial to discuss the role of digital technologies in restoring the interrupted commercial ties and in establishing new ones, to analyse approaches to creating effective national and international regulation facilitating the introduction and use of digital forms of communication by market players as well as making them more reliable.

Prof. Xue was invited to give a keynote speech at the Panel 1 “Digital trading platforms”. Prof. Xue provided a comprehensive overview on the Online Trading Platforms in Trade Law and outlined 3 clusters of the platform services that have the most significant impacts on the international trade law. The speech was well received by all the audience and highly recognized by the experts. Prof. Xue also effectively responded to a variety of questions from harmonization of cross-border regulation to application to blockchain technology.

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Prof. Xue presented at 1st meeting of the Inclusive Global Legal Innovation Platform on Online Dispute Resolution

 

The Inclusive Global Legal Innovation Platform on Online Dispute Resolution (iGLIP on ODR) was set up by HKSAR Department of Justice, in collaboration with UNCITRAL, to survey the ODR landscape, keep track of and study emerging technologies and how they influence and affect the ODR process, conduct in-depth analyses on potential issues that may arise, and explore, discuss and develop innovative legal tools to address such issues. The first meeting of iGLIP on ODR was held on 18 March 2021 (HKT 4:00 – 6:35 p.m.). The event on recent developments in online platforms researched their disputes and trade-related activities to assist UNCITRAL in exploring future work in this area.

Online platforms (also known as “digital platforms” or “electronic platforms” are increasingly being used for trade. With the help of enhanced data processing and advanced algorithms, online platforms enable the sale of goods and supply of services, connect global supply chain participants, and create online spaces for collaboration. Employing a range of systems and technologies, while also pursuing a range of business models, online platforms not only create new trading opportunities, but also new ways of trading. The potential of online platforms for trade is particularly acute so for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). Online platforms employ a range of systems and technologies, including the use of interactive applications (e.g. allowing for communication between platform users), and offer additional services. They may also include a system for handling complaints, as well as a system for handling disputes between users (in which case the platform would also be a dispute resolution platform). On the other hand, platforms have also been developed fully dedicated to the resolution of disputes.

Prof. Xue was invited to give a keynote speech on the platforms’ dispute resolution mechanisms, e.g. notice system and complaining system, and present the potential and future development of the platforms in resolving international trade disputes. More than 40 experts from 3 continents joined the meeting and had the interesting discussions.

Programme

18 March 2021, 16:00-18:35 HK (GMT +8), 09:00-11:35 Vienna (CET)

16:00-16:20 Opening remarks

  • Ms Teresa CHENG (Secretary for Justice, HKSAR) (10 mins)
  • Ms Anna JOUBIN-BRET (Secretary, UNCITRAL) (10 mins)

16:20-17:25 Roundtable discussion on platforms for international trade and their linkage to dispute resolution

Moderator: Mr Jae Sung LEE (Legal Officer, UNCITRAL)

Rapporteur: Mr Ian LI (Acting Senior Government Counsel, Department of Justice, HKSAR, DOJ Project Office for Collaboration with UNCITRAL)

Presenters

  • “Platform-based Models for International Trade: Legal Anatomy, Recent Trends, and Dispute Resolution Schemes”,Professor Teresa RODRÍGUEZ DE LAS HERAS BALLELL (Associate Professor of Commercial Law, University Carlos III of Madrid, Spain) (8 mins)
  • “The Platform Effects of Dispute Resolution in International Trade”, Professor Hong XUE (Law Professor, Beijing Normal University, China) (8 mins)

Discussion from iGLIP members (up to 4 mins per intervention)

17:25-18:30 Roundtable discussion on online platforms for international dispute resolution

Moderator: Dr James DING (Commissioner, Inclusive Dispute Avoidance and Resolution Office, Department of Justice, HKSAR)

Rapporteur: Ms Michelle FUNG (Acting Deputy Principal Government Counsel, Department of Justice, HKSAR, DOJ Project Office for Collaboration with UNCITRAL)

Presenters

  • “International Rule Making Projects on ODR”, Professor Yoshihisa HAYAKAWA (Professor of law, Rikkyo University, Japan) (8 mins)
  • “Moving the needle”, Ms Lise ALM (Head of Business Development, The Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce, Sweden) (8 mins)

Discussion from iGLIP members (up to 4 mins per intervention)

18:30-18:35 Closing remarks

Mr Jae Sung LEE and Dr James DING

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Prof. Xue presented at UNCITRAL DE Expert Group Meeting

On 8-9 March 2021, at 11am to 2pm CET, Expert Group Meeting (EGM) was held to discuss the digital economy project. The EGM focused on 2 themes, i.e. (a) a legal taxonomy on emerging technologies used in digital trade, in particular a new section of the taxonomy on online platforms; and (b) a proposal for future legislative work by UNCITRAL on the use of artificial intelligence and automation in contracting (including “smart contracts”).

The EGM was in the form of a moderated roundtable discussion with introductory remarks by the Chair of UNCITRAL, H.E. Eric Anderson Machado, Ambassador of Peru, and the Secretary of UNCITRAL, Ms. Anna Joubin-Bret. More than 30 experts from 20 countries joined the EGM. Prof. Xue was the only Chinese expert invited to participate and present at the meeting.

On day one, Prof. Xue shared the Chinese experience on legal definition and regulation of e-commerce platforms and discussed with the other experts on the relevant taxonomy, actors and legal engagement issues regarding the platforms. On day two, Prof. Xue discussed the difference between machine automation and autonomy, AI ethics and liability issues with the other experts.

All experts agrees that the discussion shall go one and UNCITRAL’s DE project will considerably important to the establishment of the relevant legal framework on new digital trade.

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北京师范大学全球发展战略合作伙伴项目 IIPL Virtual Lecture

北京师范大学全球发展战略合作伙伴项目 Beijing Normal University Global Development Strategic Partnership Project

互联网政策与法律研究中心 外国专家网上讲座 第一讲

Institute for Internet Policy & Law Foreign Expert Virtual Lecture Series Lecture One

Date: 19 November 2020, 17:00-20:30 Beijing

Lecture via Zoom connection

Moderator: Prof. Hong Xue, Director of Institute for Internet Policy & Law, Beijing Normal University

Lecturer: Professor Andrea Stazi is the Professor in Comparative Law and New Technologies Law, the Full Professor in Comparative Law of the National Scientific Habilitation and the Director of the Innovation Law Laboratory (InnoLawLab) of Europe University in Rome.

Prof. Stazi lectured on the regulatory regime on genetically modified organisms (GMO) in Europe and made the comparative study with US, China and other jurisdiction. The BNU students who are particularly interested in the GMO labeling system made the extensive study on this topic. The students of LLM in Chinese Law raised on question but were gratitude to the opportunity to access the lecture.

2020年11月19日17:00-20:30,互联网政策与法律研究中心主办 “北京师范大学全球发展战略合作伙伴项目”外国专家网络讲座,罗马欧洲大学安德烈.斯特齐教授为法学院中国法硕士项目学生、法学硕士生、法律硕士生、法学博士生等做了以“比较法中的转基因的法律监管”为主题的演讲。薛虹教授主持讲座,并进行了评议。

斯特齐教授首先介绍了基因工程和转基因技术的定义,并提出了转基因农作物和食物的出现解决了全世界范围内的饥饿和营养不良问题。基因工程是以分子遗传学为理论基础,以分子生物学和微生物学的现代方法为手段,将不同来源的基因按预先设计的蓝图,在体外构建杂种DNA分子,然后导入活细胞,以改变生物原有的遗传特性、获得新品种、生产新产品的遗传技术。基因工程技术为基因的结构和功能的研究提供了有力的手段。转基因技术是指利用DNA重组、转化等技术将特定的外源目的基因转移到受体生物中,并使之产生可预期的、定向的遗传改变。转基因技术应用在人类社会各个领域 中,较为常见的包括了利用转基因技术生产的农作物,以及利用转基因技术生产疫苗等。含有转基因作物成分的食品被称之为转基因食品,其与非转基因食品具有同样的安全性。世界卫生组织以及联合国粮农组织认为:凡是通过安全评价上市的转基因食品,与传统食品一样安全,可以放心食用。随着转基因技术的出现,也引发了众多的法律问题,尤其是从可持续发展和比较法的角度,这些问题在发展中国家尤其突出。在转基因领域的主要存在的问题是如何对转基因农作物的种子等的使用进行有效的限制。

斯特齐教授进一步介绍了目前在转基因领域出现的机遇、风险和监管选择。在目前全球饥饿问题仍然严峻的今天,如何保证食品安全是非常重要的,对转基因的有效管理即利用其解决全球饥饿问题,有保障食品的安全性。其中主要的问题在于:1)农作物或转基因产品获取和商业开发自由的形式和限制;2)保护食品健康和确保消费者透明度的有效规则。随着,转基因食品供应在世界范围成为主流,如何对其进行有效的监管控制十分重要。转基因食品标识是管理转基因食品的重要一环。转基因标识是根据转基因生物安全管理相关法律法规对含有转基因成分的食品、饲料和其它相关产品进行的标示 。转基因标识符合法律赋予消费者知情权和选择权的要求,为消费者提供相关信息,并使消费者在知情的情况下做出自己的选择。斯特齐教授对于如何有效地管控转基因食品安全和标识也进行了分享。

斯特齐教授专门介绍了美国、欧洲和中国在转基因方面的法规。美国对生物安全和转基因食品管理方面的法律、法规很健全,而且各部门相对独立、分工明确、权责明晰、相互协调统一、且运作效率高。由于美国对转基因食品的管理采取相对宽松的政策,美国的转基因作物和转基因食品发展非常快,在世界上处于垄断地位。但在转基因食品管理、法律方面仍存在严重的不足,即对转基因食品不进行标识。欧盟通过“欧盟议会委员会新食品和食品成分管理条例第258/97号令”, 并于当日生效,由此开始了欧盟对转基因产品的严格管制。欧盟是对转基因作物及其产品管理最为严格的地区之一,目前对于转基因作物的管理决策正在欧洲水平上制定,27个成员国的转基因食品、饲料以及进口申请统一由欧盟食品安全局(ESFA)负责审批。ESFA拥有最为复杂的转基因产品审批程序,与美国专注控制转基因产品不同,这些程序注重控制转基因产品的生产研制过程和环境释放过程。欧盟认为,只有从源头控制,才能把转基因产品的危害控制在最小的范围内。

薛虹教授进行了评议,斯特齐教授关于转基因监管的研究着重于植物与粮食方面,但是随着转基因肉类的发展,关于转基因动物及相关的食品安全也将成为突出的法律问题。斯特齐教授对此甚为赞同,并表示将进一步进行研究。来自中国、意大利、韩国的数十位研究生参加了网络讲座,并与斯特齐教授进行了亲切的互动。

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